Copper

RJ45 ports.

Fiber

SFP is short for small form-factor pluggable, a hot-pluggable flexible interface where you may insert different kind of SFP transceivers enabling the port to be used with different equipment depending on the transceiver inserted.

LC connector

The transceiver may use different kind of fiber connecters, very popular is the LC connector.

1 Gb SFP up to 2.5 Gb/s

Almost square plug

Fiber: 1 Gbit/s — 1.25 Gbit/s — 2.5 Gbit/s
Copper: 1 Gbit/s for RJ-45 1000BASE-T

10 Gb SFP+ up to 16 Gb/s

Almost square plug

1 x 10
1 x 1

25 Gb SFP28 up to 28 Gb/s

Almost square plug

1 x 10
1 x 25

40 Gb QSFP+

Wide plug

1-4 x 10
1 x 40

100 Gb QSFP28

Wide plug

1-4 x 10
1-4 x 25
1-2 x 50
1 x 100

CFP

40 - 100 Gb/s CFP, CFP2, CFP4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_Form-factor_Pluggable

Patching

ODF - Optical Distribution Frame - aka "Fiber patch panel"